The most amazing geothermal places you absolutely must visit!
1. Pamukkale, meaning “cotton castle” in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli Province in southwestern Turkey. The city contains hot springs and travertiness, terraces of carbonate minerals left by the flowing water. It is located in Turkey’s Inner Aegean region, in the River Menderes valley, which has a temperate climate for most of the year.
Pamukkale’s terraces are made of travertine, a sedimentary rock deposited by water from the hot springs.
In this area, there are 17 hot water springs in which the temperature ranges from 35 °C (95 °F) to 100 °C (212 °F). The water that emerges from the spring is transported 320 metres (1,050 ft) to the head of the travertine terraces and deposits calcium carbonate on a section 60 to 70 metres (200 to 230 ft) long covering an expanse of 24 metres (79 ft) to 30 metres (98 ft).
When the water, supersaturated with calcium carbonate, reaches the surface, carbon dioxide de-gasses from it, and calcium carbonate is deposited. The depositing continues until the carbon dioxide in the water balances the carbon dioxide in the air. Calcium carbonate is deposited by the water as a soft jelly, but this eventually hardens into travertine.
2. Lion geyser, Yellowstone, Wyoming, USA, is a fairly large geyser. It was named because it emits a steam puff that sounds like a roar. Some roars are very loud and can be startling. Using one’s imagination the overhanging geyserite on its cone also somewhat resembles a shaggy lion’s mane. It can reach 50 to 90 feet and last over seven minutes. Lion erupts in a series of from 1 to 30 eruptions, although in 2011 the longest series have had 17 eruptions.
The initial eruption of the series is the tallest and lasts the longest. Unlike the other eruptions of the series, the initial eruption begins with splashing overflowing the cone and ends with a steam phase which can include the roar.
Eruptions other than the initial fall into two categories, majors and minors. Major eruptions last about 4 minutes and minors last about one minute. Both categories can reach about 50 feet in height. Roars can also occur just before or just after an eruption within the series.
Series to series intervals depend greatly upon the duration of the previous series. Recently, they have been as little as 6 hours to over 50 hours. In a series, the interval from the initial eruption to the second in the series, assuming that there is a second, is often between 1 and 1.5 hours. the interval between other eruptions in the series is often about one hour but can rarely be as short as 15 minutes or as long as three hours.
3. The Mammoth Hot Spring Terraces have been a popular feature in Yellowstone since the early stagecoach routes up the Yellowstone River Valley. The Terraces, first described by the 1871 Hayden Survey, were given the name of White Mountain Hot Spring, even though they were well known and named before then.
The step-like terraces form as heated water moves along the Morris-Mammoth Fault. The hot water carries dissolved calcium and bicarbonate to the surface of the terraces where pressure lessens. Carbon dioxide then escapes as gas and the carbonate combines with calcium to precipitate as travertine.
The Mammoth Terraces are constantly changing shape and color. Springs which were active one to five years ago may be dry and lifeless now, yet activity may later resume. Along with changes of thermal activity come changes in color. Fresh travertine is bright white in color and as it weathers it changes to gray. Bright colored cyanobacteria and algae mats which were dependent upon a stable temperature and a flow of water also change as the microorganisms die creating a stark, bleak landscape.
4. Morning Glory Pool, Yellowstone. The distinct color of the pool is due to bacteria which inhabit the water. On a few rare occasions the Morning Glory Pool has erupted as a geyser, usually following an earthquake or other nearby seismic activity.
Several entryways have water supply, and in turn altering the overall appearance of the pool. Several attempts by park officials to artificially induce eruptions to clear the pool of debris and clear blocked entryways have been met with mixed results.
An interpretive sign, placed near the pool by the park service, discusses the damage caused by ignorance and vandalism and suggests that Morning Glory is becoming a “Faded Glory”.
5. Crater Lake of Gorely Volcano Kamchatka. The Valley of Geysers is a part of the Kronotsky nature reserve, a world miracle, detected by chance. The valley is difficult to reach, with helicopters providing the only feasible means of transport. The Valley of Geysers is the only geyser field in Eurasia (apart from the Mutnovsky geyser field on the same peninsula) and the second largest concentration of geysers in the world.
This 6 km long basin with approximately ninety geysers and many hot springs is situated on the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, predominantly on the left bank of the ever-deepening Geysernaya River. The “pulsating” geysers of Kamchatka were discovered by a local scientist, Tatiana Ustinova, in 1941. She published her findings fourteen years later, but there was little exploration of the area until 1972. A systematic survey was undertaken in the mid-1970s, and an automatic monitoring system was introduced in 1990. Over thirty geysers were given names; among these was the geyser Velikan (Giant), it can produce a jet of water reaching up to 40 meters.
Some geysers function every 10-12 minutes, others erupt once in 4-5 hours. The wreathes of steam, fountains of boiling water, incredible colors of slopes, hot water streaming along them and profuse greenery of grasses and trees create an enchanting spectacle. The traveler should, however keep in mind, that this place is not safe. The most dangerous spots in the Valley of geysers are covered with grass looking harmless. A burning hot slush can be under this grass. The acid can attack your trousers, when you sit down on the stone. But the places, where wormwood grows, are usually safe. A massive mudflow on the June 3, 2007 swept away two thirds of the valley, now only some of the geysers are active.
The Valley of Death is a small place in the upper reaches of the Geysernaya River. The toxic gases and volatile substances are killing the animals, birds and even the people, coming there by accident.
6. Fly Geyser, Nevada, USA. Fly Geyser, also known as Fly Ranch Geyser is a man-made small geothermal geyser located in Washoe County, Nevada approximately 20 miles (32 km) north of Gerlach. Fly Geyser is located near the edge of Fly Reservoir and is only about 5 feet (1.5 m) high, but 12 feet (3.7 m) counting the mound on which it sits in 2013.
Fly Geyser is not an entirely natural phenomenon; it was accidentally created by well drilling in 1964 exploring for sources of geothermal energy. The well may not have been capped correctly, or left unplugged, but either way dissolved minerals started rising and accumulating, creating the travertine mound on which the geyser sits and continues growing.
Water is constantly released, reaching 5 feet (1.5 m) in the air. The geyser contains several terraces discharging water into 30 to 40 pools over an area of 30 hectares (74 acres). The geyser is made up of a series of different minerals, but its brilliant colors are due to thermophilic algae.
7. Geyser Strokkur, Iceland. Strokkur was first mentioned in 1789, after an earthquake unblocked the conduit of the geyser.
Its activity fluctuated in the 19th century; in 1815 its height was estimated to be as much as 60 metres. It continued to erupt until the turn of the 20th century, when another earthquake blocked the conduit again.
In 1963, upon the advice of the Geysir Committee, locals cleaned out the blocked conduit through the bottom of the basin, and the geyser has been regularly erupting ever since. Video.
8. Geothermal lakes Askja and Viti , Iceland. Askja was virtually unknown until the tremendous eruption which started on March 29, 1875. Especially in the eastern fjords of Iceland, the ashfall was heavy enough to poison the land and kill livestock. Ash, or tephra from this eruption was wind-blown to Norway and Sweden. The eruption triggered a substantial wave of emigration from Iceland. Another less well-known eruption occurred in the early Holocene, ca 11,000 years ago. Tephra from this eruption has been found in south-east Sweden, Northern Ireland and north Norway. The last eruption of the Askja was in 1961.
The outer caldera of Askja, representing a prehistoric eruption, is about 50 km², and there is evidence of other later caldera-forming events within it. The main crater floor lies at about 1,100 m.
In June 2010, Volcano expert Hazel Rymer said seismic activity was increasing at Askja and that an eruption could be around the corner. The increased earthquake activity is located to the northeast of the central volcano, in the direction of Herðubreið. It was ruled out that any activity from Eyjafjallajökull was responsible for the increase in activity at Askja. The news came as scientists continue to watch Katla.
In early April 2012 it was noted that the lake in the caldera was totally clear of ice, which usually does not happen until in June or July in a normal year. It is believed that increased geothermal activity in the volcano is heating the lake. Travel in the area was restricted until further research could be carried out.
Víti is a smaller explosion crater on the north east shore of Öskjuvatn, approximately 150 metres diameter. It contains a geothermal lake of mineral-rich, sulphurous, opaque blue water, which is maintained at a comfortable temperature for swimming. Swimming in these craters is not a good idea because carbon dioxide can accumulate on top of the water, making the swimmer pass out and drown. However, it has to be mentioned that there rarely is a calm day in Askja. Víti was formed in the eruption of 1875.
9. Lake Rotorua, New Zealand. In rotorua, New Zealand you will find variety of spots that it is possible to enjoy your vacations. Here I have outlined number of basic tour guides for traveling in rotorua.
Rotorua can be named as jewels of North Island which enclosed with all the geothermal wonders, parks, pure background, lakes, it is inside the center of Maori culture and it also consists of fashionable attractiveness for current culture. Most from the folks comment within the smell around the surroundings, it’s hydrogen Sulphide which unfold rotten egg gas for the atmosphere. This might be noticed only once you invest extended time for the similar place.
There are number of geothermal parks in its surrounds which consists of waitapu thermal wonderland, whakarewarewa thermal area, oakei korako geyserland, waimangu volcanic valley and hell’s gate. Be certain, all these expected repayment entry.
10. Devil’s Bath lake, Wai-O-Tapu, New Zealand.
Suspended sulphur is responsible for the bright green color of the Devil’s Bath, an eruption crater lake located in the Wai-O-Tapu Thermal Wonderland near Rotorua, New Zealand.
11. Artists palete lake, Wai-O-Tapu , New Zealand. Wai-O-Tapu (Māori for “sacred waters”) is an active geothermal area at the southern end of the Okataina Volcanic Centre, just north of the Reporoa caldera, in New Zealand’s Taupo Volcanic Zone.
It is 27 kilometres south of Rotorua. The area has many hot springs noted for their colourful appearance, in addition to the Lady Knox Geyser, Champagne Pool, Artist’s Palette, Primrose Terrace and boiling mud pools. The geothermal area covers 18 square kilometres. Prior to European occupation the area was the homeland of the Ngati Whaoa tribe who descended from those on the Arawa waka (canoe).
The area has a long history as a tourist attraction. While the area has been protected as a scenic reserve since 1931, a tourist operation occupies part of the reserve under a concession.
12. Sulfur geysers on Io. At finally, if you are very rich men, you can visit one of moon of the Jupiter – Io and observe his unique geysers.
Looking like a giant pizza covered with melted cheese and splotches of tomato and ripe olives, Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system. Volcanic plumes rise 300 km (190 miles) above the surface, with material spewing out at nearly half the required escape velocity.
A bit larger than Earth’s Moon, Io is the third largest of Jupiter’s moons, and the fifth one in distance from the planet.
Although Io always points the same side toward Jupiter in its orbit around the giant planet, the large moons Europa and Ganymede perturb Io’s orbit into an irregularly elliptical one. Thus, in its widely varying distances from Jupiter, Io is subjected to tremendous tidal forces. These forces cause Io’s surface to bulge up and down (or in and out) by as much as 100 m (330 feet)! Compare these tides on Io’s solid surface to the tides on Earth’s oceans. On Earth, in the place where tides are highest, the difference between low and high tides is only 18 m (60 feet), and this is for water, not solid ground!
An enormous plume of liquid sulfur dioxide rises more 200 miles above Io’s calamitous surface. So large is this eruption that the source of the geyser lies beyond the horizon. In the foreground are the remains of old lava flows composed of silicate rocks, sulfur, and sulfur compounds. Io has a thin atmosphere composed of sulfur dioxide and is very cold (with the exception of the volcanic calderas themselves) with a surface temperature of – 225º F.
Io is the most volcanically active body known in the Solar System. Eruptions are so common and so large that Io has likely resurfaced itself many times since its formation. As a result, impact craters, which are common on many planets and satellites, are absent on Io.